Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2006 Apr;5(2):121-31.
NO-NSAIDs: from inflammatory mediators to clinical readouts.
Fiorucci S, Antonelli E. University of Perugia, Italy.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs) are widely used drugs. However, their use is hampered by gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and renal side effects. Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing NSAIDs, NO-NSAID, are a new class of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs generated by adding a nitroxybutyl or a nitrosothiol moiety to the parent NSAID via a short-chain ester linkage. While efficacy of nitrosothiol-NSAIDs still awaits investigation, nitroxybutyl-NO-NSAIDs have been extensively studied in humans. The combination of balanced inhibition of the two main COX isoforms with release of NO confers to NO-NSAIDs reduced gastrointestinal and cardiorenal toxicity. It is suggested that the NO, which is released as the compounds are broken down, may counteract the consequences of the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal prostaglandins. Recent clinical trials with NO-NSAIDs have provided data consistent with pre-clinical observations.
Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2006 Apr;5(2):115-9.
Nitric oxide and inflammation.
Cirino G, Distrutti E, Wallace JL. Department of Experimental Pharmacology, UniversitÃ di Napoli-Federico II, Napoli, Italy.
There are several pre-clinical studies on the involvement of NO in inflammation. From this large amount of information it is clear that virtually every cell and many immunological parameters are modulated by NO. Thus, the final outcome is that NO cannot be rigidly classified as an anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory molecule. This peculiar aspect of the pathophysiology of NO has hampered the development of new drugs based on the concepts developed. Recent therapeutic approach are targeted to increase endogenous NO by activating the gene and some promising early data are available. At the present stage one of the most promising approach in the inflammation field is represented by a new class of NO-releasing compounds namely NO-NSAIDs that have recently enrolled in phase 2 clinical studies.