2003 - 11

Inflammopharmacology. 2003;11(4):437-44.

The CINOD, AZD3582, exhibits an improved gastrointestinal safety profile compared with naproxen in healthy volunteers.

Jonzon B, Bjarnason I, Hawkey C, Jones J, Goddard A, Fagerholm U, Karlsson P. Experimental Medicine, AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, S-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.

COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs) are a new class of drugs in development for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. They comprise a COX-inhibiting moiety linked to a nitric-oxide-donating component and are designed to provide an innovative mechanism of action of balanced COX inhibition and controlled nitric oxide donation. Through these pathways, CINODs should provide analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy, while offering gastrointestinal safety through the tissue-protective effects of nitric oxide donation. AZD3582 [4-(nitrooxy)butyl-(2S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)propanoate] is the first agent in the CINOD class to enter extensive clinical development. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that AZD3582 has a superior gastrointestinal safety profile to naproxen, while demonstrating analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In healthy human volunteers, AZD3582 caused little gastrointestinal damage compared with equimolar doses of naproxen. Studies to evaluate the longer-term gastrointestinal safety of AZD3582, alongside its efficacy in alleviating chronic and acute pain, are ongoing.

Inflammopharmacology. 2003;11(4):423-8.

COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs) - a new paradigm in the treatment of pain and inflammation.

Hoogstraate J, Andersson LI, Berge OG, Jonzon B, Ojteg G. Research DMPK, AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, S-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.

The clinical utility of non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain relief is tempered by their propensity to cause gastrointestinal toxicity. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs) are a new class of drugs designed to provide analgesic efficacy through COX inhibition and gastrointestinal safety through the protective effects of controlled nitric oxide donation. Pre-clinical studies assessing the pharmacology, efficacy and gastrointestinal safety of AZD3582 [4-(nitrooxy)butyl-(2S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)propanoate] support this concept. Based on these studies, AZD3582 was the first CINOD to enter clinical development for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. The potential clinical utility of this new class is illustrated by a study of AZD3582 in healthy volunteers in which it caused significantly less acute gastrointestinal toxicity than an equimolar dose of naproxen. The results of the animal studies and the initial clinical study warrant long-term tolerability studies of AZD3582 along with evaluation of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in humans.

Gut. 2003 Nov;52(11):1537-42.

Gastrointestinal safety of AZD3582, a cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donator: proof of concept study in humans.

Hawkey CJ, Jones JI, Atherton CT, Skelly MM, Bebb JR, Fagerholm U, Jonzon B, Karlsson P, Bjarnason IT. Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs) are a new class of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs that may minimise gastrointestinal toxicity compared with standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by virtue of nitric oxide donation. METHODS: A proof of concept study of the gastrointestinal safety of AZD3582, the first CINOD available for human testing, was conducted. Thirty one subjects were randomised to receive placebo, naproxen 500 mg twice daily, or its nitroxybutyl derivative AZD3582 in an equimolar dose (750 mg twice daily) for 12 days in a double blind three period crossover volunteer study. At the start and end of each dosing period, gastroduodenal injury was assessed by endoscopy and small bowel permeability by differential urinary excretion of lactulose and L-rhamnose. Pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed at steady state. RESULTS: On naproxen, the mean total number of gastroduodenal erosions was 11.5 (and one subject developed an acute ulcer) versus 4.1 on AZD3582 (p<0.0001). More than half of the subjects had no erosions on AZD3582. Differences were seen for both the stomach and duodenum. Naproxen increased intestinal permeability (lactulose:L-rhamnose ratio 0.030 before v 0.040 after treatment) whereas AZD3582 (0.029 before, 0.029 after; p=0.006 v naproxen) and placebo (0.030 before, 0.028 after; p<0.001 v naproxen) did not. The steady state bioavailability of naproxen metabolised from AZD3582 was 95% (95% confidence interval 87-101%) of that after naproxen administration. CONCLUSIONS: This human study supports animal data showing reduced gastrointestinal toxicity with the CINOD AZD3582. The potential combination of effective pain relief and gastrointestinal protection offered by AZD3582 warrants further evaluation in human clinical studies.