2005 - 05

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 May;57(5):587-97.

Pre-clinical pharmacokinetics of the cyclooxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donor (CINOD) AZD3582.

Fagerholm U, Breuer O, Swedmark S, Hoogstraate J. Clinical Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, S-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.

The pre-clinical pharmacokinetics of AZD3582 (4-(nitrooxy)butyl-(2S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl) propanoate) and its primary metabolites (naproxen and nitrate) were evaluated. AZD3582 had intermediate and passive intestinal permeability (40 times lower than for naproxen), high systemic plasma clearance (CL), substantial gastrointestinal hydrolysis, intermediate volume of distribution (Vss; >or=3.4 L kg-1) and half-life (t1/2; 7 h), negligible plasma protein binding (approximately 0.1%), low/intermediate oral uptake (>or=13% as intact substance) and low and varying oral bioavailability (mean 1.4% in minipigs and 3.9% in dogs). Following administration of therapeutically relevant oral doses, plasma concentrations of AZD3582 were very low (40 h in rats, minipigs and dogs, respectively. The Vss and CL for naproxen were small. Plasma protein binding was extensive, and saturation was observed within the therapeutic dose and concentration range. Intake of food prolonged the systemic absorption of naproxen in the minipig. The pharmacokinetics of naproxen did not show apparent time- or gender-related dependency. Following oral dosing of [3H]-, [14C]- and [15N]-AZD3582, most [14C]- and [3H]-activity was excreted in urine and expired air, respectively. Seventeen per cent of [15N] was recovered in minipig urine as [15N]-nitrate. About 30% of [3H]-activity (naproxen and/or naproxen-related metabolites) was excreted in bile and re-absorbed. Concentrations of [14C]-activity (nitrooxy-butyl group and/or its metabolites) in milk were higher than in plasma and [3H]-activity in milk. [3H]- and [14C]-excretion data indicated that intact AZD3582 was not excreted in urine, bile or milk to a significant extent. There was no apparent consistency between tissue distribution of [14C]- and [3H]-activity in the rat, which suggests rapid and extensive metabolism of extravascularly distributed AZD3582. A substantial increase of plasma nitrate levels was found after single and repeated oral doses

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;77(5):437-50.

Renal effects of the cyclooxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donator AZD3582 compared with rofecoxib and naproxen during normal and low sodium intake.

Huledal G, Jonzon B, Malmenas M, Hedman A, Andersson LI, Odlind B, Brater DC. Experimental Medicine, AstraZeneca R&D Södertälje, SE-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) and can thereby reduce renal function, especially with respect to solute excretion and renal perfusion. AZD3582 [4-(nitrooxy)butyl-(2S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)propanoate] is a COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donator. Donation of nitric oxide by AZD3582 could preserve blood flow and thereby counteract the deleterious effects of COX inhibition in the gastrointestinal tract and possibly in other organ systems, including the kidney. The aim of this single-dose study was to assess the hypothesis that AZD3582 would not adversely affect renal function compared with NSAIDs. METHODS: In a parallel, randomized, double-blind fashion, a total of 60 healthy subjects (age range, 20-44 years) received 2 single doses of 750 mg AZD3582, 1500 mg AZD3582, 50 mg rofecoxib, 500 mg naproxen, or placebo (n = 12 per group). The first dose was given after a 5-day normal-sodium diet (150 mmol/d), and the second was given after a consecutive 3-day low-sodium diet (10 mmol/d). Urinary sodium excretion during normal sodium intake and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (assessed by iohexol clearance) during sodium depletion were the primary variables measured. RESULTS: Urinary sodium excretion was reduced in all active treatment groups (maximal reduction of approximately 11 mmol/h during normal sodium intake, P < .05 versus placebo for all groups). GFR was also reduced in all active treatment groups. In sodium-depleted subjects, the mean (SD) maximal reduction in GFR during 0 to 6 hours for 750 mg AZD3582, 1500 mg AZD3582, 50 mg rofecoxib, and 500 mg naproxen was 28.1 mL/min (13.5 mL/min), 33.7 mL/min (23.3 mL/min), 25.2 mL/min (29.2 mL/min), and 41.7 mL/min (30.7 mL/min), respectively, with a statistically significant difference between 500 mg naproxen and placebo. Relative changes in sodium excretion and GFR were similar during normal sodium intake and sodium depletion during active treatment. CONCLUSION: The renal effects of 750 mg and 1500 mg AZD3582 were similar to those of 500 mg naproxen and 50 mg rofecoxib. Thus the potential for nitric oxide donation to create a renal-sparing agent was not found for AZD3582.