Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;130(6):1399-405.
NO-naproxen modulates inflammation, nociception and downregulates T cell response in rat Freund's adjuvant arthritis.
Cicala C, Ianaro A, Fiorucci S, Calignano A, Bucci M, Gerli R, Santucci L, Wallace JL, Cirino G. Dipartimento di Farmacologia Sperimentale, UniversitÃ degli Studi di Napoli - Federico II, Napoli, Italy. 1.
Anti-inflammatory non steroidal drugs releasing NO (NO-NSAIDs) are a new class of anti-inflammatory drugs to which has been added an NO-releasing moiety. These compounds have been shown to retain the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of the parent compound but to be devoid of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. 2. Freund's adjuvant (FA) arthritis was induced in rats by a single intraplantar injection into the right hindpaw of 100 microl of mycobacterium butirricum (6 mg ml (-1)). The effect of equimolar doses of naproxen (1, 3 and 10 mg kg(-1)) and NO-naproxen (1.5, 4.5 and 16 mg kg(-1)) was evaluated using two dosage regimen protocols: (i) preventive, starting oral administration of the drugs at the time of induction of arthritis and for the following 21 days (day 1 - 21); (ii) therapeutic, starting oral administration of the drugs 7 days after adjuvant injection and for the following 14 days (day 7 - 21). 3. Hindpaw swelling (days 3, 7, 11, 14, 17, 21) and nociception (days 15 and 21) were measured. On day 22 rats were sacrificed, draining lymph nodes were removed and T cells isolated. In vitro proliferation of T cells following stimulation with concanavalin A (0.5 - 5 microg ml(-1)) was measured using a tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. IL-2 receptor expression on T cells was measured by FACS analysis. 4. Naproxen and NO-naproxen showed similar activity in reducing oedema formation in the non-injected (controlateral) hindpaw. Both drugs showed anti-nociceptive effect. NO-naproxen was anti-nociceptive at a dose of 4.5 mg kg(-1) while naproxen showed the same extent of inhibition only at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). 5. T cells were isolated and characterized by FACS analysis. Stimulation of isolated T cells with concanavallin A in vitro caused a significant increase in thymidine uptake. NO-naproxen at a dose of 4.5 mg kg(-1) inhibited T cell proliferation to the same extent as 10 mg kg(-1) of naproxen. 6. Inhibition of T cell proliferation was well correlated with reduced IL-2 receptor expression on T cells. In addition, NO-naproxen reduced both IL-1beta and TNFalpha plasma levels whilst naproxen reduced IL-1beta levels only. 7. In conclusion, both naproxen and NO-naproxen reduce inflammation and nociception associated with arthritis. In addition NO-naproxen interferes to a larger extent with cellular mechanism involved in T cell activation in rat adjuvant arthritis indicating that introduction of the NO moiety in the naproxen structure increases the effect at the level of the immune system.