Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb;11(1):69-79.
NO-naproxen vs. naproxen: ulcerogenic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.
Davies NM, Roseth AG, Appleyard CB, McKnight W, Del Soldato P, Calignano A, Cirino G, Wallace JL. Intestinal Disease Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
BACKGROUND: A novel class of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NO-NSAID) derivatives has recently been described which exert anti-inflammatory activities but produce significantly less gastrointestinal injury than the parent NSAID from which they are derived. The present studies were performed to determine if a nitroxybutylester derivative of naproxen was less ulcerogenic to the gastrointestinal tract than its parent NSAID, and if it exerted comparable analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties to the parent NSAID. METHODS: The two drugs were compared in an acute gastric injury model, an antral ulcer model and after twice-daily administration for 18 days (small intestinal damage model). Anti-inflammatory activity was examined in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, while analgesia was examined in the acetic acid-induced writhing model. The pharmacokinetic profiles of naproxen vs. NO-naproxen were compared by HPLC analysis. RESULTS: NO-naproxen was found to produce significantly less gastric damage despite inducing similar increases in plasma TNF alpha to naproxen. With chronic administration, small intestinal damage was markedly less with NO-naproxen than with the parent NSAID. However, NO-naproxen exerted superior analgesic and comparable anti-inflammatory effects to naproxen. NO-naproxen was not completely converted to naproxen, but the reduced plasma levels of the latter was not the underlying reason for reduced gastrointestinal toxicity of NO-naproxen. CONCLUSION: NO-naproxen represents a novel, gastrointestinal-sparing NSAID derivative with superior analgesic and comparable anti-inflammatory properties to naproxen.