Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 15
NO-sulindac inhibits the hypoxia response of PC-3 prostate cancer cells via the AKt signalling pathway.
Stewart GD, Nanda J, Brown DJ, Riddick AC, Ross JA, Habib FK. Prostate Research Group, Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Nitric oxide-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are safer than traditional NSAIDs and inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells with greater potency than NSAIDs. In vivo, prostate cancer deposits are found in a hypoxic environment which induces resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects and mechanism of action of a NO-NSAID called NO-sulindac on the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. NO-sulindac was found to have pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, and anti-invasive effect on PC-3 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. NO-sulindac was significantly more cytotoxic than sulindac at all oxygen levels. The sulindac/linker and NO-releasing subunits both contributed to the cytotoxic effects of NO-sulindac. Resistance of PC-3 cells to NO-sulindac was induced as the oxygen concentration declined. Hypoxia-induced chemoresistance was reversed by knocking-down hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA using RNAi. Nuclear HIF-1alpha levels were upregulated at 0.2% oxygen but reduced by treatment with NO-sulindac, as was Akt phosphorylation. NO-sulindac treatment of hypoxic PC-3 cells transfected with a reporter construct, downregulated activation of the hypoxia response element (HRE) promoter. Co-transfection of PC-3 cells with the HRE promoter reporter construct and myr-Akt (constitutively active Akt) plasmids reversed the NO-sulindac induced reduction in HRE activation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of hypoxic, NO-sulindac treated PC-3 cells showed downregulation of lysyl oxidase and carbonic anhydrase IX mRNA expression. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrate that NO-sulindac directly inhibits the hypoxia response of PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1alpha translation via the Akt signalling pathway. The ability of NO-sulindac to inhibit tumour adaption to hypoxia has considerable relevance to the future management of prostate cancer with the same cellular properties as PC-3.